|2019 Valencia Test|
|Date||15 - 18 October 2019|
|Location||Circuit Ricardo Tormo, Valencia, Spain|
|Lap length||3.090 km (1.920 mi)|
2019 Mexico City Test
2020 Rookie Test
The 2019 Valencia Test was the first and only pre-season test, staged ahead of the 2019/20 ABB FIA Formula E Championship, held at the Circuit Ricardo Tormo in Valencia, Spain, between 15 - 18 October 2019. The Test would be the first public running for the new Porsche and Mercedes-Benz factory teams, ahead of their mutual debuts at the 2019 Ad Diriyah E-Prix I.
The three day test would see Maximilian Günther emerge as the fastest driver for BMW i Andretti Motorsport, setting a new circuit record on the final day of 1:15.087. The German racer also topped the distance covered charts with 203 laps of Valencia completed across the six test sessions, a figure only matched by teammate Alexander Sims, with their combined total coming to 401 laps or 1,239.060 km (769.879 mi).
The series would also stage two simulation races during the test, both used to test the new energy deduction rules that were to be implement during Safety Car and Full Course Yellow situations. The first race would be won by the new Mercedes-Benz EQ Formula E Team lead driver Stoffel Vandoorne, while Sébastien Buemi of Nissan e.Dams secured "victory" in the second race.
The ABB FIA Formula E Championship would return to the Circuit Ricardo Tormo in Valencia, Spain, for a third straight year ahead of the 2019/20 season, with the circuit serving as the only collective pre-season test for the series. The circuit itself was to be modified as it had been before, with a chicane installed on the start/finish straight to better simulate a street circuit, although the chicane was made shallower to better prevent the circuit from being blocked in case of an accident. A familiar schedule was also established for the test, with six sessions of three hours of running split across three days, with Thursday left clear for analysis.
Pre-season was all about the arrival of Porsche and Mercedes-Benz into the series, with the two German manufacturers throwing considerable weight at their FE programmes ahead of their debuts. However, the two manufacturers would have drastically different approaches to the series, with Mercedes having used HWA Racelab in 2018/19 to obtain a season's worth of experience with customer powertrains. Porsche, meanwhile, would obtain the signature of their former WEC factory driver André Lotterer to partner Neel Jani, bringing driver experience to their new car, the Porsche 99X Electric.
Mercedes' maiden season would see them hire Stoffel Vandoorne from HWA, having taken over HWA's entry, while also hiring 2019 FIA Formula 2 Championship Champion Nyck de Vries to partner the Belgian. The Mercedes squad had also secured their first customer team, with the freshly renamed Venturi Racing team buying two Mercedes-Benz EQ Silver Arrow 01s instead of building their own powertrains as they had done since 2015/16. Otherwise the Venturi squad would appear as they had in 2018/19, with factory Mercedes GT driver Edoardo Mortara partnering ex-F1 ace Felipe Massa for the season.
Elsewhere, FE stalwarts Audi Sport ABT Schaeffler were unchanged ahead of the new season, once again fielding Lucas di Grassi and Daniel Abt. Furthermore, they would also supply Envision Virgin Racing with powertrains for a second season, with factory Audi driver Robin Frijns partnering Sam Bird in the team for another campaign. A fourth Audi factory driver would also get a shot in FE, with Nico Müller joining non-Audi customers GEOX Dragon.
Completing the German quartet would be BMW i Andretti Motorsport, who had a quiet summer following their maiden campaign in 2018/19. They would, however, lose their lead driver António Félix da Costa after the Portuguese ace left their factory roster of drivers, although they did opt to retain Alexander Sims after his mixed maiden campaign. The Bavarian squad would also sign Maximilian Günther as the German racer was a free agent, having impressed in his two-part rookie season in 2018/19.
Nissan e.Dams would have a tricky summer, for the Japanese manufacturer's twin motor layout was banned after the 2018/19 season, meaning they had to develop a new powertrain concept for 2019/20. Furthermore, the death of DAMS boss Jean-Paul Driot in August 2019 had caused major structural changes, with his sons Gregory and Oliver taking over the team on the eve of the Valencia Test. Driver-wise, however, the Nissan-e.Dams alliance was unchanged, with Sébastien Buemi and Oliver Rowland retained for a second consecutive season, although Buemi would miss one race due to his WEC commitments.
Over at DS Techeetah, meanwhile, there would only be one major change, with the squad having to find a replacement driver for Lotterer. They duly secured the signature of da Costa from BMW to partner defending Champion Jean-Éric Vergne, creating one of the strongest driver line-ups on the grid. da Costa's relatively late arrival meant that Vergne had completed most of the testing of the DS E-Tense FE 20, with da Costa only getting time in the car shortly before the Valencia test.
Elsewhere, Jaguar would have a busy summer developing their lightest ever powertrain, the I-Type IV, in their bid to continue their climb up the Championship table. Their line-up would be led by Mitch Evans once again, the highly rated New Zealander having been approached by other teams, while Alex Lynn was dropped from the team after completing the previous season with the squad. In his place Jaguar would sign Ferrari WEC driver James Calado, with the Brit set to make his public FE debut at the Valencia Test.
Mahindra Racing, meanwhile, would start the new season unchanged at a surface level, with Jérôme d'Ambrosio and Pascal Wehrlein retained as drivers, while Nick Heidfeld retained his test/reserve role. However, the would be major modifications internally, with the Mahindra squad signing a deal with ZF to co-develop their powertrains, replacing their five-year association with Magneti Marelli. There would also be some staff structure changes in a bid to find more consistency over a race weekend, having endured another mixed campaign in 2018/19.
GEOX Dragon would arrive in Valencia with another new driver line-up, with the aforementioned Müller partnered by another rookie in the form of former Porsche WEC factory driver Brendon Hartley. Hartley and Müller's contributions were likely to be all the more interesting given their associations with Porsche and Audi respectively, having both developed the powertrains of Dragon's rivals ahead of the new season. Otherwise the Dragon team was unchanged, with Penske remaining their powertrain suppliers in spite of significant interest from major manufacturers, most notably Ford.
Completing the field would be the freshly renamed NIO 333 FE Team who had, as ever, endured a turbulent summer. Indeed, in-spite of obtaining new owners and retaining lead driver Oliver Turvey, the team had been forced to drop their 2019/20 powertrain, instead obtaining a deal to run customer powertrains from Penske, re-badged as NIOs. The team would also sign FE refugee Ma Qing Hua to partner Turvey for the new season, with the Chinese racer, who served as their test/reserve driver in 2018/19, replacing a seat-less Tom Dillmann.
Below is a complete entry list for the full 2019 Valencia Test across each day:
The first day of running a the 2019 Valencia Test was staged on 15 October 2019, with the day split into two sessions of three hours apiece. There would also be some time set aside for several teams to complete some media running, as well as press conferences for teams and drivers.
There was a quick flood of on-track activity when the circuit opened at 9:00 am local time, with most of the field heading out in the opening fifteen minutes. The outright pace quickly developed in the early stages, with Alexander Sims getting below the fastest lap from 2018, a 1:16.977 set by his former BMW Andretti before the end of the first hour. However, the circuit had been revised since the previous season, with the chicane on the start/finish straight re-profiled to make it shallower, meaning times would be inevitably faster.
The pace would continue to climb throughout the session, with Sims' new teammate Maximilian Günther ultimately ending the morning with the fastest time, a 1:15.926 set in the final hour. da Costa was next in his new DS Techeetah, recording a 1:16.032 to edge out his teammate and defending Champion Jean-Éric Vergne, while the two Nissan e.Dams completed the top five. Best of the new manufacturers would be Mercedes, with Edoardo Mortara in the Venturi Racing run customer car in ninth, six-tenths off the outright pace.
Elsewhere there would be some stoppages to the session, with technical troubles for Oliver Turvey ensuring that the #3 NIO would only complete a handful of installation laps. Nyck de Vries, meanwhile, would bring out a red flag by stopping on track with a broken RESS fuse, while Neel Jani in the #18 Porsche was another driver to hit issues on track. However, the biggest delay would be caused by Jaguar Racing new boy James Calado, who removed the front right corner of his I-Type IV in a collision with the re-profiled chicane.
After a two hour lunch break the field returned to the circuit at 14:00 local time, with the majority of the field opting to complete long runs. The stand out name from that phase would be Sims, who completed an impressive stint of 34 laps, some 105.000 km of running in his BMW-Andretti. His teammate Günther matched his tally but was a fraction slower on average, with André Lotterer in his Porsche also managing 34 laps, but was half a second a lap off the Brit's pace.
For the rest of the field long-runs were rarely over 20 laps, with Mitch Evans of Jaguar setting an impressive pace, half a second up on average on Sims' laps, but covering only two thirds of the distance. Towards the end of the three hour session, with temperatures dropping, the field almost as a whole headed onto the circuit to set qualifying runs, with Sam Bird emerging from the flurry as the fastest man, claiming a 1:15.570. Günther was next up, improving on his morning effort to a 1:15.663 ahead of the DS Techeetahs, with the top ten within half a second of one-another.
Elsewhere it was another miserable session for de Vries, with Mercedes only managing to get the Dutchman out for a quali-run late on, having replaced his RESS fuses. Jaguar, meanwhile, would repair Calado's car in time for the session, only for the Brit to stop at the exit of the pitlane, bringing out a red flag. At the back of the field, meanwhile, Turvey finally got in some running in his NIO, outpacing teammate Ma Qing Hua by over three seconds.
Below is the full result from the first day of the 2019 Valencia Test:
|2019 Valencia Test Times|
|1st||2||Sam Bird||Envision Virgin Racing||66||1:16.943||1:15.570||—|
|2nd||28||Maximilian Günther||BMW i Andretti Motorsport||89||1:15.926||1:15.663||+0.093s|
|3rd||13||António Félix da Costa||DS Techeetah||66||1:16.032||1:15.681||+0.111s|
|4th||20||Mitch Evans||Jaguar Racing||75||1:16.520||1:15.724||+0.154s|
|5th||25||Jean-Éric Vergne||DS Techeetah||80||1:16.162||1:15.798||+0.228s|
|6th||23||Sébastien Buemi||Nissan e.Dams||60||1:16.297||1:15.882||+0.312s|
|7th||22||Oliver Rowland||Nissan e.Dams||64||1:16.246||1:15.942||+0.372s|
|8th||94||Pascal Wehrlein||Mahindra Racing||72||1:16.385||1:15.975||+0.405s|
|9th||4||Robin Frijns||Envision Virgin Racing||64||1:16.640||1:16.081||+0.511s|
|10th||66||Daniel Abt||Audi Sport ABT Schaeffler||62||1:16.952||1:16.084||+0.514s|
|11th||27||Alexander Sims||BMW i Andretti Motorsport||93||1:16.828||1:16.097||+0.527s|
|12th||11||Lucas di Grassi||Audi Sport ABT Schaeffler||61||1:16.297||1:16.140||+0.570s|
|13th||7||Nico Müller||GEOX Dragon||80||1:16.387||1:16.398||+0.817s|
|14th||36||André Lotterer||Porsche Formula E Team||75||1:16.622||1:16.482||+0.912s|
|15th||48||Edoardo Mortara||Venturi Racing||60||1:16.531||1:16.537||+0.961s|
|16th||64||Jérôme d'Ambrosio||Mahindra Racing||50||1:16.552||1:18.046||+0.982s|
|17th||19||Felipe Massa||Venturi Racing||58||1:17.189||1:16.580||+1.010s|
|18th||6||Brendon Hartley||GEOX Dragon||78||1:16.839||1:16.698||+1.128s|
|19th||3||Oliver Turvey||NIO 333 FE Team||37||—||1:16.867||+1.446s|
|20th||51||James Calado||Jaguar Racing||66||1:17.738||1:17.016||+1.446s|
|21st||18||Neel Jani||Porsche Formula E Team||30||1:17.343||—||+1.773s|
|23rd||17||Nyck de Vries||Mercedes||16||1:22.500||1:17.654||+2.084s|
|24th||33||Ma Qing Hua||NIO 333 FE Team||48||1:20.571||1:20.220||+4.650s|
The second day of running in Valencia was staged on 16 October, although with a major change to the schedule compared to the first day. Wednesday's running would see the field complete a three-hour free test session as usual, before the afternoon session was split into pieces. This would allow the field to complete a full race simulation, designed to test the new safety car procedures introduced for the 2019/20 season.
The morning session on Wednesday opened with an en-masse sprint to the circuit, with most of the field completing some early flying laps. The early pace setter proved to be Maximilian Günther for the second consecutive morning, although his early effort was beaten late on by Robin Frijns. Indeed, the Dutchman would set another new lap record as he shot to the top of the timesheet, ending the morning with a 1:15.377.
Behind Günther would be his teammate Alexander Sims, who underlined the inherent one-lap pace that BMW-Andretti had shown during the first day. Elsewhere, Nyck de Vries continued to endure a poor test run, crashing into the chicane to bring out a red flag, having already stopped on circuit during the opening minutes. André Lotterer, Jérôme d'Ambrosio and Felipe Massa would also cause chaos by smashing the front of their cars on the chicane later during the session.
A rather confusing second session would open with Brendon Hartley setting the early pace, claiming a 1:22.066, before the session was red-flagged with just twenty minutes gone. This was done in order to conduct the race simulation, with a grid drawn randomly which would make an Indy-style rolling start. However, not everyone would opt to take part for the full simulation, with five drivers, namely Sam Bird, Massa, de Vries, Oliver Turvey and Lotterer all focusing on other concerns.
Once the simulation had been completed the circuit was re-opened for free running for a final half-hour, with most of the field completing at least one run. However, a heavy accident for Bird towards the end of the session ultimately saw Wednesday's running come to a confused end, with the Virgin team opting to fit an entirely new powertrain to Bird's car after he sustained heavy damage to the right-hand side of the car. de Vries, meanwhile, would be denied more track time by an axle issue, while Massa was only able to complete a single lap to test the repairs to his car.
Elsewhere, the rather condensed schedule on Wednesday afternoon ensured that Frijns' morning time remained unbeaten, with António Félix da Costa ending the session fastest with a 1:15.586, some two tenths off the Dutchman's pace. The Portuguese ace was one of only a handful of drivers to improve, which included Jaguar new-boy James Calado, who set the fastest first sector of the test on his fastest lap. Other improvements came from Jean-Éric Vergne, Edoardo Mortara, Lotterer and Ma Qing Hua, although the latter trio made no major progress up the overall order.
A race distance of 31 laps, 45 minute timed format, was set for the race simulation on Wednesday, with two safety car periods predetermined to test new rules regarding the safety car. Pascal Wehrlein was the man to start from pole position, and duly led the opening stages before being passed by former DTM teammate Mortara. They would be chased hard by Vergne and da Costa in the two DS Techeetahs, while Stoffel Vandoorne battled past Massa to secure fifth.
Indeed, Vandoorne quickly proved to be the fastest driver in the field, easing past the DS Techeetahs before following Mortara past Wehrlein to secure second. A few laps later and the factory Mercedes passed the Venturi-Mercedes to secure the lead, with Mortara unable to respond. Indeed, Vandoorne quickly established a two second lead at the head of the field, before the safety cars came into play.
Ultimately the two four minute safety car periods did little more than bunch the pack up behind Vandoorne, who duly eased clear after the second period to claim the "win". Behind, Wehrlein's pace collapsed while Mortara and Massa retreated to the pitlane, handing second to da Costa who tried in vain to catch the #5 Merc ahead. 2016/17 Champion Lucas di Grassi, meanwhile, would battle up the field to claim third ahead of Nissan e.Dams' Sébastien Buemi, while Vergne recovered from a mid-race slump to secure fifth ahead of Wehrlein.
Below is the full result from the second day of the 2019 Valencia Test:
|2019 Valencia Test Day Two Times|
|1st||4||Robin Frijns||Envision Virgin Racing||37||1:15.377||1:16.066||—|
|2nd||28||Maximilian Günther||BMW i Andretti Motorsport||49||1:15.434||1:15.818||+0.057s|
|3rd||27||Alexander Sims||BMW i Andretti Motorsport||54||1:15.437||1:15.719||+0.060s|
|4th||22||Oliver Rowland||Nissan e.Dams||45||1:15.444||1:15.972||+0.067s|
|5th||7||Nico Müller||GEOX Dragon||50||1:15.515||1:16.062||+0.138s|
|6th||13||António Félix da Costa||DS Techeetah||51||1:15.557||1:15.586||+0.180s|
|7th||6||Brendon Hartley||GEOX Dragon||46||1:15.592||1:16.049||+0.215s|
|8th||51||James Calado||Jaguar Racing||44||1:16.098||1:15.624||+0.247s|
|9th||20||Mitch Evans||Jaguar Racing||43||1:15.640||1:15.883||+0.263s|
|10th||11||Lucas di Grassi||Audi Sport ABT Schaeffler||37||1:15.680||1:15.750||+0.303s|
|11th||48||Edoardo Mortara||Venturi Racing||46||1:15.815||1:15.695||+0.318s|
|12th||25||Jean-Éric Vergne||DS Techeetah||51||1:15.920||1:15.719||+0.342s|
|13th||2||Sam Bird||Envision Virgin Racing||46||1:15.736||1:16.276||+0.359s|
|14th||23||Sébastien Buemi||Nissan e.Dams||46||1:15.777||1:15.825||+0.400s|
|15th||66||Daniel Abt||Audi Sport ABT Schaeffler||58||1:15.797||1:16.115||+0.420s|
|16th||94||Pascal Wehrlein||Mahindra Racing||53||1:15.812||1:16.126||+0.435s|
|18th||36||André Lotterer||Porsche Formula E Team||38||1:16.315||1:15.974||+0.597s|
|19th||64||Jérôme d'Ambrosio||Mahindra Racing||32||1:15.982||1:16.307||+0.605s|
|20th||19||Felipe Massa||Venturi Racing||28||1:16.122||—||+0.745s|
|21st||18||Neel Jani||Porsche Formula E Team||45||1:16.175||1:16.257||+0.798s|
|22nd||17||Nyck de Vries||Mercedes||19||1:17.031||—||+1.654s|
|23rd||3||Oliver Turvey||NIO 333 FE Team||30||1:17.045||3:03.231||+1.668s|
|24th||33||Ma Qing Hua||NIO 333 FE Team||33||1:18.276||1:18.171||+2.794s|
The third day of the Valencia Test was held on Friday, 18 October 2019, after Thursday had been left clear to allow teams to analyse data gathered from the first two days. However, Friday's schedule would be revised on Thursday evening, with the FIA and teams agreeing to hold another simulation race to better understand the new-for-2019/20 rules regarding the safety car and VSC in terms of energy deductions. The simulation was hence added to the second session of the final day, with more time added afterwards to allow more free running before the end of the test.
Friday morning opened with the familiar flood of cars onto the Valencia circuit, with a barrage of early runs seeing times quickly dip into the 1:15.000s. The early pace was dictated by Nico Müller in the #7 GEOX Dragon, who set the then fastest time of the test mid-session, claiming a 1:15.190. However, his effort would be beaten in the dying moments by Pascal Wehrlein, who hit the top of the timesheets with a 1:15.190 in his Mahindra.
Elsewhere, António Félix da Costa secured third for DS Techeetah, a tenth of off Wehrlein's best effort, with the entire top ten separated by half a second. Indeed, the final morning of running showed that almost everyone was competitive over a single lap, with less than a second covering Wehrlein in first, and Neel Jani in 22nd. The exception to this would be the two NIOs at the back of the field, with Oliver Turvey half a second off of Jani, while Ma Qing Hua was another four tenths away.
Surprisingly there would be only one major stoppage to the session, with all 24 drivers running trouble free throughout the morning. Indeed, the only red-flag of the morning would be caused by Alexander Sims, who wiped the front of his car out on the chicane at the start of a qualifying run.
The race simulation would take up the first half of the afternoon's running, with the track opened for a final hour once the race had been concluded. The limited amount of time to charge batteries meant that most of the field opted to complete more qualifying runs, resulting in some more off-track issues and more red flags. Indeed, both the GEOX Dragons and Stoffel Vandoorne would manage to cause stoppages, dragging gravel onto the circuit after separate off-track adventures.
On-track, meanwhile, the star of the afternoon would be Maximilian Günther, who set a new circuit record with a 1:15.087, edging out Wehrlein's morning effort by 0.103s. Unfortunately for Günther his test would end with an ignominious slap against the barriers at the chicane, bringing out another red flag. This in-turn caused the session to be extended by fifteen minutes, although no-one would manage to beat the German racer's effort.
Regardless, the overall order of the field would not be drastically changed on the final day, with just a second covering the top 22, while NIO remained a fair way off the ultimate pace.
A Virtual Simulation
The purpose of the second race simulation was to test the power deduction rules under Full Course Yellow conditions, after Wednesday's test had focused on their use under safety car periods. Two pre-arranged FCY periods were planned, lasting for five minutes apiece, with the race once again set to run for 31 laps. The grid order would once again be drawn randomly, with a rolling start, with everyone bar Sims, whose car was still being repaired, taking part.
It was da Costa who led the field away from pole, battling early on with Oliver Rowland and Felipe Massa. Behind, André Lotterer fought with the two Envision Virgin Audis, while Sébastien Buemi battled up the order. Edoardo Mortara was also making ground in the early stages in the second Venturi Mercedes, while star of the morning Wehrlein had little impact.
da Costa would eventually forfeit the lead to both Rowland and Massa, before dropping out of the race entirely with a visit to the pits. His teammate Jean-Éric Vergne would likewise opt against completing the race distance, as Massa fought with Rowland for the lead. The Brazilian would eventually force his way through, although contact between the two ultimately caused Massa to lose pace and pit.
The two Virgins were the next to enjoy spells at the head of the field, although both Sam Bird and Robin Frijns would pit, leaving Lotterer in the lead. however, in the closing stages of the race the Porsche racer would be caught and passed by a charging Buemi, who aced the restart from the second VSC to blast past the German and claim the lead. The Swiss ace duly eased away to claim the "win" by 1.6s from Lotterer, while Mortara secured third in the Venturi-Mercedes.
Below is the full result from the third day of the 2019 Valencia Test:
|2019 Valencia Test Day Three Times|
|1st||28||Maximilian Günther||BMW i Andretti Motorsport||65||1:15.296||1:15.087||—|
|2nd||94||Pascal Wehrlein||Mahindra Racing||50||1:15.190||1:15.458||+0.103s|
|3rd||7||Nico Müller||GEOX Dragon||45||1:15.198||1:15.788||+0.111s|
|4th||13||António Félix da Costa||DS Techeetah||47||1:15.293||1:15.634||+0.206s|
|5th||20||Mitch Evans||Jaguar Racing||45||1:15.366||1:15.306||+0.219s|
|6th||23||Sébastien Buemi||Nissan e.Dams||44||1:15.328||1:15.646||+0.241s|
|7th||27||Alexander Sims||BMW i Andretti Motorsport||51||1:15.359||1:15.822||+0.272s|
|8th||64||Jérôme d'Ambrosio||Mahindra Racing||46||1:16.082||1:15.454||+0.367s|
|9th||25||Jean-Éric Vergne||DS Techeetah||51||1:15.480||1:16.032||+0.393s|
|10th||19||Felipe Massa||Venturi Racing||53||1:15.504||1:16.251||+0.417s|
|11th||2||Sam Bird||Envision Virgin Racing||56||1:15.576||1:18.917||+0.489s|
|12th||66||Daniel Abt||Audi Sport ABT Schaeffler||43||1:15.673||1:16.012||+0.586s|
|13th||11||Lucas di Grassi||Audi Sport ABT Schaeffler||42||1:15.675||1:16.072||+0.588s|
|14th||6||Brendon Hartley||GEOX Dragon||43||1:15.682||1:16.183||+0.595s|
|15th||48||Edoardo Mortara||Venturi Racing||52||1:15.684||1:17.356||+0.597s|
|16th||36||André Lotterer||Porsche Formula E Team||41||1:15.809||1:15.699||+0.612s|
|18th||4||Robin Frijns||Envision Virgin Racing||50||1:15.819||1:18.952||+0.732s|
|19th||22||Oliver Rowland||Nissan e.Dams||39||1:15.867||1:15.875||+0.780s|
|20th||51||James Calado||Jaguar Racing||61||1:15.880||1:16.769||+0.793s|
|21st||17||Nyck de Vries||Mercedes||69||1:15.916||1:16.668||+0.829s|
|22nd||18||Neel Jani||Porsche Formula E Team||44||1:16.158||1:16.053||+0.966s|
|23rd||3||Oliver Turvey||NIO 333 FE Team||49||1:16.610||1:16.598||+1.481s|
|24th||33||Ma Qing Hua||NIO 333 FE Team||44||1:17.047||1:17.449||+1.960s|
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- 'Merecedes-Benz EQ reveal the Silver Arrow 01, Vandroorne & de Vries complete line up', fiaformuale.com, (FIA Formula E, 11/09/2019), https://www.fiaformulae.com/en/news/2019/september/mercedes-2019-200challenger-revealed, (Accessed 11/09/2019)
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- 'BREAKING: Guenther secures BMW drive while Da Costa parts ways', fiaformulae.com, (FIA Formula E, 09/09/2019), https://www.fiaformulae.com/en/news/2019/september/guenther-joins-bmw-as-da-costa-parts-ways, (Accessed 09/09/2019)
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- Cite error: Invalid
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- Cite error: Invalid
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- 'Frijns fastest, Envision Virgin Racing remains at the top', fiaformulae.com, (FIA Formula E, 16/10/2019), https://www.fiaformulae.com/en/news/2019/october/pre-season-testing-3, (Accessed 21/10/2019)
- Jaime Chico, 'LIVE AND LIVE | Pre-Season Test Day 2 | Formula E', motortime.es, (MotorTime, 16/10/2019), http://www.motortime.es/2019/10/16/en-vivo-y-en-directo-test-de-pretemporada-dia-2-formula-e/, (Accessed 21/10/2019)
- Cite error: Invalid
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